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Transportation Planning

Complete encyclopedia of transportation planning measures and calculations

Transportation planning is a multidisciplinary field that involves the development of policies, strategies, and infrastructure to facilitate the efficient movement of people and goods within a region.

With a goal of creating a safe, reliable, and sustainable transportation system that meets the needs of the community while addressing economic, environmental, and social considerations, transportation planners work to improve existing infrastructure, plan for future growth, and enhance overall mobility.

To guide their framework, transportation planners utilize on a series of performance measure that help with:

- Objective Evaluation
- Goal Setting and Monitoring
- Data-Driven Decision-Making
- Resource Allocation
- Public Accountability
- Policy Evaluation
- Congestion Management
- Safety Improvement
- Environmental Impact
- Adaptability to Changing Conditions

Knowing that performance measures are essential tools in transportation planning for setting goals, monitoring progress, making informed decisions, and optimizing the performance of transportation systems, what follows is an encyclopedia of transportation planning measures and their calculations.

**Vehicle Miles Traveled **

Vehicle miles traveled (VMT) is determined using vehicle traffic volume and segment length.

**Calculation**

SUM( Segment_Length x Volume )

**More Info**

Vehicle Miles Traveled is the total mileage traveled by all vehicles over a period of time for a given area

**Person Miles Traveled **

Person Miles Traveled (PMT) is determined by multiplying VMT by the average vehicle occupancy.

**Calculation**

SUM( Segment_Length x Volume x Average_Vehicle_Occupancy )

**More Info **

Person Miles Traveled is the total mileage traveled by all vehicles multiplied by the average vehicle occupancy over a period of time for a given area

**% of Travel Meeting Level of Service (LOS) Targets **

The percentage of travel meeting LOS targets is determined by summing the VMT on roadways operating acceptably and then dividing it by the total system VMT. The term “acceptably” is defined as LOS D (two-hour peak and daily) for the 7 Largest MPO Urbanized Areas, LOS D (one-hour peak and daily) for other urbanized areas, and LOS C (one-hour peak and daily) everywhere else”

**Calculation**

( SUM( VMT during Peak Performance >= Acceptable LOS Target Threshold ) / SUM( VMT ) ) x 100

**% of Miles Meeting Level of Service (LOS) targets **

"The percentage of miles meeting LOS targets is determined by summing the centerline miles of roadways operating acceptably and then dividing by the total system centerline miles. The term “acceptably” is defined as LOS D (two-hour peak and daily) for the 7 Largest MPO Urbanized Areas, LOS D (one-hour peak and daily) for other urbanized areas, and LOS C (one hour peak and daily) everywhere else."

**Calculation**

( SUM( Segment_Length during Peak Performance >= Acceptable LOS Target Threshold ) / SUM( Segment Length ) ) x 100

**More Info**

% of Miles Meeting Level of Service (LOS) targets

**Travel Time Reliability: On-Time Arrival **

For the urbanized areas of the 7 largest MPOs, on-time arrival is defined as the percentage of freeway trips traveling at least 45 mph. For all others, on-time arrival is defined as the percentage of freeway trips traveling at greater than or equal to 5 mph below the posted speed limit. For example, 80% on-time arrival indicates that the traveler is anticipated to arrive at the destination on time on 4 out of 5 trips.

**Calculation**

**For Urbanized Areas of the 7 largest MPOs**

( SUM( VMT at Travel Speed >= 45 mph ) / SUM( VMT ) ) x 100

**All Others**

( SUM( VMT at Travel Speed >= ( Speed Limit - 5 mph ) ) / SUM( VMT ) ) x 100"

**More** **Info**

Travel time reliability % of freeway trips traveling at least 45 mph for urbanized areas. Or % of freeway trips traveling greater than or equal to 5 mph below the speed limit

**Travel Time Reliability: Planning Time Index **

Planning time index is defined as the ratio of the 95th percent peak period/hour travel time to the free flow travel time. This measure represents the additional time that a traveler should budget to ensure on-time arrival 95 percent of the time.

**Calculation**

( Travel Time 95th percentile ) / ( Travel Time free-flow )

**More Info**

Travel Time Reliability is the amount of time a traveler should budget to ensure on-time arrival 95% of the time

Average Travel Speed

Average travel speed is the average of all hourly segment travel speeds captured by probe data or modeled through speed-volume functions.

**Calculation**

SUM( VMT x Average Travel Speed on Segment ) / SUM( VMT )

**% Travel Achieving the Speed Limit **

Percent travel achieving the posted speed limit is calculated for arterials and highways by comparing the average peak hour speed against the posted speed limit. The output represents the overall percentage of the speed limit achieved in the peak hour.

**Calculation**

SUM( VMT x ( Peak Hour Speed / Posted Speed Limit ) ) / SUM( VMT )

**More Info**

% of Travel Achieving Speed Limit compares the average peak hour speed vs. posted speed limit

**Vehicles Per Lane Mile**

The vehicles per lane mile is calculated as the summation of each roadway segment’s peak hour vehicle miles traveled divided by the number of lane miles

**Calculation**

SUM( ( Volume / Number of Lanes ) x Lane Miles ) / SUM( Lane Miles )

**More Info **

Vehicles per Lane Mile shows the number of vehicles per lane mile during peak hour

**% of Travel Heavily Congested **

The percentage of travel heavily congested is determined by summing the VMT on roadways operating at defined LOS thresholds and then dividing it by the total system VMT. The defined thresholds are identified as LOS E in urbanized areas (or worse) based on the travel speeds associated with LOS E thresholds, and LOS D in all other areas (or worse) based on the travel speeds associated with ‘D’."

**Calculation**

(SUM( VMT during Peak Performance at defined LOS thresholds ) ) / SUM( VMT ) ) x 100

**More Info**

% of Travel Heavily Congested compares the total vehicle miles traveled (VMT) during peak performance that falls below the Level of Service thresholds vs. the total VMT of the system

**% of Miles Heavily Congested **

"The percentage of miles heavily congested is determined by summing the miles of roadway operating at defined LOS thresholds in the peak hour/peak period and then dividing by the total system miles. The defined LOS thresholds are the same as % of Travel Heavily Congested."

**Calculation**

( SUM( Segment Length during Peak Performance at defined LOS thresholds ) / SUM( Segment Length ) ) x 100

**More Info **

% of Miles Heavily Congested compares the miles of a roadway segment that are operating at Level of Service thresholds during peak period vs. the total miles in the system

**Hours Heavily Congested **

"The vehicle hours heavily congested is estimated as the average number of hours in which segments operate at defined LOS thresholds, weighted by lane-miles. The defined LOS thresholds are the same as % of Travel Heavily Congested."

**Calculation**

**Daily**

SUM t=1 thru 24( Hourly Performance at defined LOS thresholds )

**Yearly**

365 x SUM t=1 thru 24( Hourly Performance at defined LOS thresholds )"

**More Info **

Hours Heavily Congested is estimated as the average number of hours in which roadway segments operate at defined Level of Service thresholds

**Vehicle Hours of Delay **

Delay is estimated on an hourly basis by determining the difference between delay threshold travel time and actual travel time along a facility. The thresholds are based on LOS B as defined by FDOT.

**Calculation**

SUM( Vehicle Volume ) x (Daily or Peak Travel Time - Travel Time at LOS B)

**More Info **

Vehicle Hours of Delay are estimated on an hourly basis and represent the calculated delay along a given route

**Person Hours of Delay **

Person hours of delay is calculated as the product of directional hourly volume, average vehicle occupancy, and the difference between travel time at “threshold” speeds and travel time at the actual speed. The thresholds are based on LOS B as defined by FDOT.

**Calculation**

SUM( Average Vehicle Occupancy ) x Vehicle Volume x (Daily or Peak Travel Time - Travel Time at LOS B)

**More Info **

Person hours of delay is calculated as the estimated amount of additional time people spend in travel comparing volume, avg. vehicle occupancy, and the difference between travel time at threshold speeds vs. travel time at actual speed

**Job Accessibility: Auto **

"Job accessibility” is a “cumulative opportunity” metric — it reflects the total number of jobs reachable by auto within a 40-minute travel time threshold. It is calculated for each census block, and the results are aggregated to provide a statewide average. This calculation assumes a departure time of 8:00 a.m Wednesday, in order to represent job accessibility during the morning peak period."

**Calculation**

SUM( Block Level Number of Jobs x Number of Workers ) / SUM( Number of Workers )

**More Info **

Job Accessibility: Auto shows the ratio of jobs that are accessible within a 40-minute travel time threshold at peak time

**Number of Fatalities **

Total number of fatalities on roadways as a direct result of a traffic crash within thirty days of the crash occurrence.

**Calculation**

SUM( Fatalities )

**More Info **

Total number of fatalities resulting from traffic crashes within 30 days of crash occurrence

**Number of Serious Injuries **

Number of disabling/incapacitating injuries from traffic crashes that prevent the injured individuals from normal activities and require hospitalization.

**Calculation**

SUM( Serious Injuries )

**More Info **

Total number of disabling/incapacitating injuries resulting from traffic crashes

**Rate of Fatalities **

Total number of fatalities on roadways per 100 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT)

**Calculation**

SUM( Fatalities ) / SUM( 100 million VMT )

**More Info **

Fatality rate per 100 million vehicle miles traveled

**Rate of Serious Injuries **

Total number of serious injuries (nonfatal) on roadways per 100 million vehicle miles traveled (VMT).

**Calculation**

SUM( Serious Injuries ) / SUM( 100 million VMT ) "H4: per 100 million VMT

**More Info **

Serious Injury rate per 100 million vehicle miles traveled

**Motorcyclist Fatalities **

The number of fatalities of both motorcyclists and their passengers within 30 days of the crash occurrence.

**Calculation**

SUM( Motorcyclist Fatalities )

**More Info **

Total number of fatalities for motorcyclists and their passengers resulting from crashes within 30 days of crash occurrence

**Motorcyclist Serious Injuries **

The number of incapacitating injuries of both motorcyclists and their passengers.

**Calculation**

SUM( Motorcyclist Serious Injuries )

**More Info **

Total number of serious injuries (nonfatal) for motorcyclists and their passengers resulting from crashes

**Pedestrian Fatalities and Serious Injuries **

This measure is the total number of pedestrian fatalities and serious injuries (incapacitating) that are reported on public roads.

**Calculation**

SUM( Pedestrian Fatalities ) SUM( Pedestrian Serious Injuries )

**More Info **

Total number of serious injuries (nonfatal) and fatalities for pedestrians

**Bicyclist Fatalities and Serious Injuries **

This is the total number of bicyclist fatalities and serious injuries (incapacitating) on all roadways.

**Calculation**

SUM( Bicyclist Fatalities ) SUM( Bicyclist Serious Injuries )

**More Info **

Total number of serious injuries (nonfatal) and fatalities for bicyclists

**Safety Belt Usage **

A survey that follows National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) procedures in determining the outboard, front-seat occupant belt use rate.

**Calculation**

Statewide Safety Belt Usage Rate

**More Info**

Annual average of safety belt usagePeople-Related Mobility Measures: Transit

**Transit Revenue Miles **

Number of annual miles of vehicle operation while in active service (available to pick up revenue passengers).

**Calculation**

SUM( Revenue miles of vehicle operation while in active service )

**More Info **

Total number of annual miles for active transit service vehicles (available to pick up revenue passengers)

**Transit Passenger Trips **

Annual number of passengers boarding on transit vehicles. A trip is counted each time a passenger boards a transit vehicle. Thus, if a passenger must transfer between buses to reach a destination, the passenger is counted as making two passenger trips.

**Calculation**

SUM( Passengers Boarding Transit Vehicles

**More Info **

Transit Passenger Trips represents the annual number of passenger rides aboard a transit vehicle

**Transit Revenue Miles Between Failures **

Number of total annual revenue miles divided by the number of revenue vehicle system failures; an indicator of the average frequency of delays because of a problem with the equipment.

**Calculation**

SUM( Total Annual Revenue Miles ) / SUM( Number of Revenue Vehicle System Failures )

**More Info **

Total number of annual revenue miles divided by number of revenue vehicle system failures as an indicator of average frequency of delays due to problems with equipment

**Transit Weekday Span of Service **

The number of hours that transit service is provided on a representative weekday in the operation of the transit agency. This indicator is determined by computing the number of hours between the time service begins and the time service ends for an average weekday.

**Calculation**

SUM( Service Spans ) / SUM( Transit Agencies )

**More Info **

Average number of transit hours per transit agency

**Resident Access to Transit **

The percentage of the population within a half-mile of fixed-route transit.

**Calculation**

SUM( Population within a half mile of Transit ) / SUM( Total Population )

**More Info **

% of population within 1/2 mile of fixed-route transit

**Job Accessibility: Transit **

Job accessibility is a “cumulative opportunity” metric — it reflects the total amount of jobs reachable by transit within a 40-minute travel time threshold. It is calculated for each census block, and the results are aggregated to provide a statewide average. This analysis uses the 7:00 a.m. - 9:00 a.m. time period. The data are averaged across that window from minute-by-minute departures.

**Calculation**

( Block Level Number of Jobs1 x SUM( Number of Workers1, Block Level Number of Jobs2 x Number of Workers2, ... ) ) / SUM( Number of Workers1, Number of Workers2, ... )

**More Info **

Transit shows the ratio of jobs that are accessible within a 40-minute transit time threshold at peak time

**Transit Passenger Trips Per Revenue Mile **

The ratio of annual transit passenger trips to total annual transit revenue miles of service; a key indicator of service effectiveness that is influenced by the levels of demand and the supply of service provided.

**Calculation**

SUM( Annual Transit Passenger Trips ) / SUM( Annual Transit Revenue Miles )

**More Info **

Transit passenger trips per revenue mile is a key indicator of service effectiveness

**% Pedestrian Facility Coverage **

The percentage of centerline miles of non-freeway SHS facilities in urban areas (5,000+ population) that have sidewalks and/or shared-use paths available to pedestrians.

**Calculation**

( SUM( Pedestrian Facility Miles in Urban Areas ) / SUM( Centerline Miles in Urban Areas ) ) x 100

**More Info **

% of pedestrian facility coverage represents the % of centerline miles of non-freeway SHS facilities in urban areas with sidewalks or shared-use paths available to pedestrians

**% Bicycle Facility Coverage **

The percentage of centerline miles of non-freeway SHS facilities that have bike lanes, paved shoulders, or shared pathways available to bicyclists.

**Calculation**

( SUM( Miles of Bicycle Facilities ) / SUM( Centerline Miles ) ) x 100

**More Info **

% of centerline miles of non-freeway SHS facilities that have bike lanes, paved shoulders, or shared pathways available to bicyclists % Population Within 1 Mile of Bike Facilities

Ratio of population within one mile of bike lanes and shared-use paths to state’s total population. The bike lane and shared-use path miles include those on the SHS and a limited number of non-SHS miles deemed of interest to FDOT.

**Calculation**

( Population within One Mile of Bike Lane and Shared-Use Paths / Total Population in the State) x 100

**More Info**

% of population within 1 mile of bike lanes and shared-use paths

**Aviation Passenger Boardings **

The total number of revenue passengers who board an aircraft at an airport. If a passenger has to transfer between planes to reach a destination, the passenger is counted as making two passenger boardings.

**Calculation**

SUM( Revenue Passengers Boarding Aircraft )

**More Info **

Total number of revenue passengers who board an aircraft at an airport. Transfers between planes count as a separate boarding.

**Aviation Departure Reliability **

Departure is deemed reliable if the flight departs within 15 minutes after the scheduled time shown in the carrier’s Computerized Reservations Systems (CRS). In the aviation industry, this is commonly known as on-time departure. Departure reliability is based on departure from the gate and can be influenced by various factors such as heavy traffic volume, weather, and mechanical reasons beyond the control of the airport.

**Calculation**

( SUM( Departures <= 15 Minutes of Schedule ) / SUM( Departures ) ) x 100

**More Info **

Also known as on-time departure rate, where a departure is deemed reliable if the flight departs within 15 min after the scheduled time People-Related Mobility Measures: Rail

**Rail Passengers **

Annual number of revenue-paying rail passengers.

**Calculation**

SUM( Rail Passengers )

**More Info **

Total number of revenue-paying rail passengers

**Passenger Rail On-Time Arrival **

Rail on-time arrival captures the on-time performance of a passenger rail system operating. A train is considered on-time if arrival is within a specified threshold timeframe of scheduled arrival time. The threshold time frame varies based on the trip length.

**Calculation**

( SUM( On Time Trains ) / SUM( Trains ) ) x 100

**More Info **

Passenger Rail On-Time Arrival rate captures the on-time performance (within a threshold timeframe varying on the length of the trip of passenger rails People-Related Mobility Measures: Seaport

**Seaport Passenger Movements **

Annual number of passengers embarking and disembarking on cruise ships at a cruise port.

**Calculation**

SUM( Cruise Passenger Movements )

**More Info**

Annual number of passengers embarking and disembarking on cruise ships

**Combination Truck Miles Traveled **

Combination Truck Miles Traveled (CTMT) is computed by multiplying VMT by the combination truck factor.

**Calculation**

SUM( Segment Length x Volume x Combination Truck Factor )

**More Info **

Combination Truck Miles Traveled (CTMT) calculates the daily vehicle miles traveled for combination trucks

**Truck Miles Traveled **

Truck Miles Traveled (TMT) is computed by multiplying daily VMT by a truck factor, also known as the heavy vehicle percentage or T factor.

**Calculation**

SUM( Segment Length x Volume x % of Trucks )

**More Info **

Truck Miles Traveled (TMT) calculates the daily vehicle miles traveled by trucks

**Combination Truck Tonnage **

Freight tonnage carried by combination trucks. The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) tonnage data is interpolated using a combination-truck-miles-traveled factor and weigh-in-motion data to calculate truck tonnage.

**Calculation**

SUM( Tonnage2012 ) x (AvgLoadofFullCombTR2018 / AvgLoadofFullCombTR2012 ) x ( CTMT2018 / CTMT2012 )

**More Info **

Freight tonnage carried by combination trucks

**Combination Truck Ton Miles Traveled **

The product of combination truck tonnage and the combination truck miles traveled.

**Calculation**

SUM( AvgLoadofAllCombTR ) x CTMT x 365

**More Info **

Total annual combination truck miles multiplied by the miles traveled by combination trucks

**Combination Truck Value of Freight**

The value of truck freight in dollar amount is obtained from the FAF cargo value data, truck tonnage, and annual factors for CTMT average truck load.

**Calculation**

SUM( Tonnage2012 ) x (AvgLoadofFullCombTR2018 / AvgLoadofFullCombTR2012 ) x ( CTMT2018 / CTMT2012 ) x FAF Value of Freight

**More Info **

Total annual value of truck freight

**Combination Truck Travel On-Time Arrival **

On-Time Arrival is the percentage of truck miles traveled for which the travel speed is greater than or equal to 45 mph for freeways within 7 Largest MPO Urbanized Areas, and greater than or equal to 5 mph below the posted speed limit for freeways in all other areas

**Calculation**

**Urbanized Areas of the 7 largest MPOs**

( SUM( CTMT|Travel Speed >= 45 mph ) / SUM( CTMT ) ) x 100

**All Others**

( SUM( CTMT|Travel Speed >= (Speed Limit - 5 mph) ) / SUM( CTMT ) ) x 100

**More Info **

On-time arrival is the % of combination truck miles traveled for which travel speed is greater than or equal to 45 mph for freeways in the 7 largest urban areas and greater than equal to 5 mph below posted speed limit for freeways in other areas

**Combination Truck Planning Time Index **

"Combination Truck Planning Time Index is the same as Planning Time Index (PTI), defined as a ratio of the 95th percent peak period/hour travel time to the free flow travel time. This measure represents the additional time that a shipper should budget to ensure on-time arrival 95% of the time."

**Calculation**

95th Percentile Travel Time / ( Free - flow Travel Time )

**More Info **

Combination truck planning time index represents the additional time that a shipper should budget to ensure on-time arrival 95% of the time

**Combination Truck Hours of Delay **

Combination Truck Hours of Delay is estimated on an hourly basis by determining the difference between delay threshold travel time and actual travel time along a facility.

**Calculation**

SUM( Combination Truck Volume ) x ( Daily Combination Truck Travel Time - Travel Time at LOS B )

**More Info **

Combination truck hours of delay is estimated on an hourly basis to determine the difference between delay threshold travel time and actual travel time along a route

**Combination Truck Average Travel Speed **

Combination truck average travel speed is the average of all hourly segment travel speeds captured by probe data or modeled through speed-volume functions. The combination truck average speed is estimated assuming that the free flow speed for automobile is set as the posted speed limit plus 5 mph, and the free flow speed for combination trucks is the posted speed limit.

**Calculation**

SUM( CTMT x Combination Truck Average Travel Speed ) / SUM( CTMT )

**More Info **

Combination truck average travel speed

**Combination Truck Cost of Delay **

Cost of delay comes from calculating the average marginal cost of labor per hour and multiplying that by the number of hours of delay for combination trucks.

**Calculation**

SUM( Combination Truck Hours of Delay x Average Marginal Cost of Labor per Hour )

**More Info **

Cost of delay is the average marginal cost of labor per hour multiplied by the number of hours of delay for combination trucks

**Truck Empty Backhaul Tonnage **

In the trucking industry, backhaul is the return movement of a truck from its original destination to its point of origin. When the truck is not hauling cargo during this movement, it is considered an empty backhaul. This measure represents the available carrying capacity that is not being utilized by trucks leaving a state.

**Calculation**

SUM( Truck Empty Backhaul Tonnage )

**More Info**

The unutilized tonnage of trucks not carrying cargo after leaving their original destination and returning to its point of originFreight-Related Mobility

**Aviation Tonnage **

The weight of all cargo handled at airports.

**Calculation**

SUM( Tons Handled at All Airports )

**Aviation Value of Freight **

Aviation value of freight is the product of aviation tonnage and average value of cargo per ton. Average value per ton is calculated using FAF data.

**Calculation**

SUM( Tonnage ) x Average Value per Ton

**More Info**

Aviation tonnage multiplied by the average value of cargo per tonFreight-Related Mobility Measures: Space Launches

**Space Launches **

Space launches account for all the successful mission launches from Cape Canaveral Spaceport, other than any test flights.

**Calculation**

SUM( Orbital Launches )

**More Info**

Count of all the successful mission launches (not including test flights) Freight-Related Mobility Measures: Rail

**Rail Tonnage **

The tons of freight carried by rail

**Calculation**

SUM( Rail Tonnage )

**More Info**

Total tonnage of freight carried by rail mode Freight-Related Mobility Measures: Seaport

**Seaport Tonnage **

International and domestic waterborne tons of cargo handled at public seaports.

**Calculation**

SUM( Seaport Tonnage )

**More Info **

International and domestic waterborne tons of cargo handled at public seaports

**Seaport Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units **

Twenty-foot equivalent unit (TEU) represents the cargo capacity of a standard intermodal container, twenty feet long and eight feet wide. It is the standardized unit of the capacity of a container ship, or a container terminal.

**Calculation**

SUM( Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units )

**More Info **

Represents the cargo capacity of container ships or container terminal using the base unit as a standard intermodal container 20' long x 8' wide Seaport Value of Freight

Seaport value of freight is the dollar value of international waterborne cargo handled at public seaports.

**Calculation**

SUM( Value of Waterborne Trade )

**More Info**

Dollar value of international waterborne cargo handled at public seaports